Before you can legally drive on the road in the UK, there are some documents you must have.
Your driving licence
You must have a valid driving licence for the vehicle you’re driving: if there are any restrictions on your licence (such as only driving a large goods vehicle with automatic transmission), you must follow them.
If you’re learning to drive a lorry, you must have a full licence for category B and a provisional licence for the category you wish to drive. You should also be supervised by somebody who
- is at least 21 years old
- has held a licence to drive the category of vehicle you’re driving for at least 3 years.
A learner must also have red L plates on the vehicle (or D plates in Wales) – but these must be removed when the vehicle isn ot being driven by a learner.
The vehicle registration certificate (V5C)
The vehicle must be registered with the DVLA. The vehicle registration certificate (V5C) will show the details that have been registered
- the name and address of the vehicle’s registered keeper (not necessarily the same as the legal owner)
- information about the vehicle including its make, model and engine size
- the date the vehicle was first registered.
If you’re the registered keeper, you must tell the DVLA if you
- change your name or address – find out how to change your name or address on the V5C on GOV.UK
- have or develop a medical condition that affects your ability to drive – see GOV.UK for more details on medical conditions that DVLA needs to know about
- buy or sell the vehicle
- make any major changes to the vehicle, such as its colour or fuel type – see GOV.UK for details on vehicle changes that need to be registered on the V5C.
Vehicle tax must be paid on all motor vehicles used or kept on public roads (unless the vehicle is exempt). You can pay for 6 months’ or 12 months’ tax. See GOV.UK for how to tax a goods vehicle.
The registered keeper of the vehicle (the person named on the V5C – see above) is responsible for taxing the vehicle or telling DVLA if it’s off the road or has been sold, transferred, scrapped or exported.
If you’re taking a vehicle off the road and stop taxing it, you’ll need to make a Statutory Off-Road Notification (SORN). You can make a SORN at GOV.UK.
It’s illegal to drive without insurance. You must have at least third-party cover before you can take a vehicle on public roads.
Make sure your insurance covers how you’re going to use the vehicle. Some policies have restrictions on using the vehicle for carrying particular loads, for example.
When you apply for an insurance policy you must answer all the questions as honestly as you can. If you do not, your insurance policy will be invalid and you’ll be driving uninsured – which could lead to prosecution.
The annual test
The annual test for lorries, trailers and buses is similar to the MOT test that cars take each year. It checks vehicles are roadworthy and meet current regulations.
The annual test is for
- motor vehicles with a gross weight of more than 3500 kg
- vehicles that are built or have been adapted to form part of an articulated vehicle
- horseboxes with a gross weight of more than 3500 kg
- ‘A’ frame trailers and converter dollies manufactured on or after 1 January 1979
- other trailers with an unladen weight of more than 1020 kg
- all public service vehicles with more than 8 passenger seats (not including the driver’s seat).
Lorries and buses must be tested every year, starting one year after the vehicle was first registered with DVLA.
Documents you must carry when driving
When you’re driving a heavy goods vehicle (HGV) professionally in the UK, you’ll need to carry documents to show that you and the vehicle are licensed.
- Driver Qualification Card
- tachograph – analogue or digital
- smart card (if using digital tachograph)
- goods vehicle operator licence disc.
You’ll probably also have paperwork for the load you’re carrying, such as a delivery note. Check with your operator that you have all the relevant documents before you set off.
Transporting dangerous goods
If you’re transporting dangerous goods, you’ll need to carry extra documents. You’ll need an ADR certificate, showing you’ve completed vocational training and are licensed by DVLA to carry dangerous goods by road.
Your vehicle will need a specialist ADR test before it can carry explosive or dangerous goods. See GOV.UK for information about the specialist test for lorries.
The sender of the dangerous goods must provide information about the goods, which the vehicle operator must give to you, the driver, before the goods are loaded on your vehicle. These documents must give details about the goods including emergency information, and must be kept in the cab while you’re transporting the goods.
Driving in Europe
You’ll need to carry extra documents if you’re driving in Europe, such as
- your driving licence
- your passport
- the vehicle insurance certificate
- the vehicle registration document
- a consignment note (or set of notes if you’re making more than one delivery).
Your vehicle operator should also provide you with instructions on how to secure the vehicle, when and how to check the vehicle and what to do if you suspect the vehicle’s security has been breached.
Some countries will require you to carry other documents: check what you’ll need before you start your journey.
Showing your documents
You must show your driving licence, a valid insurance certificate and a current annual certificate when an authorised person, such as a police officer, asks for them. You can either produce them immediately or within 7 days at a police station.
If you borrow or rent a vehicle, or if you lend someone your vehicle, it’s your responsibility to make sure that all the appropriate documents are in place. Never assume that someone else has arranged the documents or that they’re not necessary.
Other countries may have different rules about these documents so remember to check before you drive abroad. You may need to have your documents with you whenever you’re driving.
Renewing your licence
If you’re 45 or older, you’ll need to renew your heavy goods vehicle (HGV) or passenger-carrying vehicle (PCV) licence every 5 years. After the age of 65, you’ll need to renew your licence every year. See GOV.UK for information about renewing your HGV or PCV licence.